23 interesting facts about volcanoes
Volcano is phenomenon of nature not only frightening, but really deadly. Science has already studied thoroughly the cause of volcanoes in a particular place, but humanity still doesn’t know the main thing: how to prevent an eruption. Although no one can guarantee that this is even possible…
Top facts about volcanoes
- The strongest eruption in the history of observations occurred in 1815 in Indonesia, when the Tambora volcano released into the atmosphere almost 180 cubic kilometers (43 cubic miles) of matter. The explosion of the volcano, which marked the beginning of the eruption, was heard for two thousand kilometers. It killed more than 70 thousand people, and the next year was abnormally cold for Europe and North America because of the ashes raised into the atmosphere. In addition, the volcano completely destroyed Tambor culture and killed native speakers of the Tambor language. By the way, now the activity in the depths of Tambora is growing again, and a new eruption is very likely.
- There are about 1500 active volcanoes on Earth, most of which are at the bed of the seas and oceans.
- Even an extinct volcano can suddenly come to life at any moment.
- Mount Elbrus, which is an extremely popular ski resort, is a volcano. Which, judging by some signs, can wake up soon.
- The most dangerous of the active volcanoes is considered to be El Popo, located about 50 km (31 mi) from the capital of Mexico and emitting thousands of tons of ash and hot gases into the atmosphere annually.
- The greatest danger in the eruption is not molten magma, but are pyroclastic flows, the thing that seems to be a river made of ash and smoke. The temperature inside such flow can reach 1500 C (2730 F).
- Australia is the only continent on which there is no one active volcano.
- There are volcanoes not on Earth only. The moon of Jupiter called Io is quite literally covered with them.
- In addition to the usual volcanoes, there are also cryovolcanoes that emit water and ice instead of magma. There are a lot of them on Enceladus, the moon of Saturn.
- The speed of lava flows movement can reach 90 kmph (56 mph).
- What happened about 75 thousand years ago, the eruption of the Tob supervolcano caused not only a global cooling, but also such a terrible effect as rains of sulfuric acid.
- In Iceland, volcanic heat is used to produce cheap and ecologically clean electric power.
- Located in Hawaii, Kilauea volcano continues to erupt continuously since it woke up in 1983.
- The highest mountain on Earth, if measured from the foot to the top is located on the Hawaiian Islands of Mauna Loa. Its height is almost 10 km (33,000 feet), although it rises only to 4169 meters (13.677 feet) above sea level. Mauna Loa began to form more than 700 thousand years ago.
- The highest volcano relative to sea level is located on the border of Argentina and Chile. Ojos Del Salado is rising up to a height of 6890 meters (22,604 feet). Fortunately it sleeps for a long time already, unlike the above-mentioned Mauna Loa.
- As a result of the eruption of the volcano Huaynaputina in South America in 1600 up to 3 million people died in Russia. Volcanic ashes has obscured the sunlight and caused a cold and lean summer.
- The St. Helens volcano got erupted in 1980 and covered thrown out an area of 57,000 sq. km (22,000 sq. miles) with ashes.
- The deepest underwater volcano eruption ever recorded occurred in 2008 at a depth of about 1,2 km (3900 feet).
- The southernmost volcano on Earth called Erebus is located in Antarctica, and it’s erupting constantly.
- Sufficiently powerful volcanic eruption can change the climate on the planet and cause the real end of the world. The main candidate for the destruction of our civilization is Yellowstone supervolcano located in the United States. It erupted about 2.1 million years ago the first time, and the last one about 640 thousand years ago. In total it erupted three times.
- The most “permanent” volcano is Etna located in Italy. It erupts time to time for more than last 1500 years.
- The eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa in 1883 was 10 thousand times more powerful than the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. The explosion destroyed the island on which the volcano was located, and the debris of the rocks flew to a distance of 500 km (310 mi). In December 1927, there was another eruption at this place, which began to grow a new volcano.
- The most active volcano of the Northern hemisphere of the Earth is located on Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. It’s called as Klyuchevskaya Sopka. It’s pretty young, by the way – about 7000 years only.